Title VIII of the Civil Rights Act of 1968, also known as the Fair Housing Act, was passed to address discrimination in the housing market. The Fair Housing Act makes it illegal to discriminate based on race, color, national origin, religion, sex, familial status, or disability in a variety of housing and housing-related activities. This includes the sale, rental, and financing of dwellings, along with protections against other discriminatory practices.
Precedent Setting Fair Housing Cases
- Meyer v. Holly
- Jones v. Meyer
- Trafficante v. Metropolitan
- HUD v. Ocean Sands
- Chicago v. Matchmaker
- Angelique Strong v. Chatsford Manor
- Havens v. Coleman
- Community Improvement v. City of Modesto
The Equal Credit Opportunity Act (ECOA) prohibits discrimination by creditors against credit applicants on the basis of race, color, religion, national origin, sex, marital status, age, source of income, or because an applicant exercised any right under the Consumer Credit Protection Act.
- See Also: ECOA Regulation B
Established by Congress in 1977, the Community Reinvestment Act (CRA) requires that banks and other deposit-taking financial institutions offer equal access to lending, investment, and other services within the geographic area surrounding each branch. The CRA was passed to address redlining, the practice of denying communities of color and low-income neighborhoods access to loans, investments, and other financial services.
Housing for Older Persons Act
The Housing for Older Persons Act of 1995 amended the Fair Housing Act of 1968 to address issues that arose concerning exemptions for senior housing when the FHA was amended to include protections against discrimination on the basis of familial status.
- HUD Final Rule on Implementation on the Housing for Older Persons Act (PDF)
- Questions and Answers Concerning the Final Rule Implementing the Housing for Older Persons Act of 1995 (HOPA)
- Public Law 104-76
- HOPA Fact Sheet
- FHCSP Information on HOPA
Passed in 1975, the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act (HMDA) requires banks and financial institutions to report data abut mortgages to the general public. These data are important for ensuring that lenders are serving communities fairly and without discrimination.
Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973
The Rehabilitation Act of 1973 was passed to extend a number of federal protections to people with disabilities in a variety of circumstances. Section 504 of the Act extended protections to people with disabilities in employment, education, and housing if these programs receive federal financial assistance. The Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) has an obligation to ensure individuals do not face discrimination on the basis of disability in any program or activity receiving HUD funds.
Title II and Title III of the Americans with Disabilities Act
The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) prohibits discrimination and ensures equal opportunity for people with disabilities in a variety of areas, including employment, government services, public accommodations, commercial facilities, transportation, and housing.
- ADA Title II Regulations. Featuring: 1991 Preamble with Section by Section analysis, 2010 Guidance with Section by Section Analysis, & Supplementary Information
- ADA Title III Regulations with Integrated Text. Featuring: 1991 Preamble with Section by Section analysis, 2010 Guidance with Section by Section Analysis, & Supplementary Information
Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, and national origin in programs that receive federal funds.
The Truth in Lending Act (TILA) promotes the informed use of consumer credit, by requiring disclosures about its terms and cost to standardize the manner in which costs associated with borrowing are calculated and disclosed.